Les services publics

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Reportage Afrobaromètre et Ireep sur l'accès à l'eau, mai-juin 2016

Le Bénin, un des pays les moins bien classés en matière d'accès à l'eau potable, continue de voir les efforts des autorités faire évoluer les statistiques. Mais il reste encore à faire dans un pays où, selon Afrobaromètre, 24% de la population dit avoir toujours, ou presque, fait face à l'insuffisance d'eau potable. 

En savoir plus sur Dépêches No. 76.
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WP165: Décentralisation et qualité de l’offre de services socio-publics en Afrique subsaharienne

L’objectif du présent papier est d’analyser, du point de vue purement microéconomique, l’impact de la décentralisation sur la qualité de l’offre des services socio-publics en Afrique sub-saharienne. L’analyse se sert des données issues des sondages effectués lors de la quatrième enquête Afrobaromètre sur les points de vue des citoyens sur la gouvernance, la démocratie, la réforme économique, la société civile et la qualité de vie dans 20 pays africains.

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Malgré un certain progrès, les infrastructures de base demeurent un défi en Afrique

Les nouvelles données d'enquête d'Afrobaromètre indiquent qu’en dépit du progrès accompli au cours de la décennie passée, le développement des infrastructures d'électricité, d'eau, des systèmes d'égouts, et des routes demeure un formidable défi à travers l'Afrique, particulièrement dans les zones rurales. En revanche, le service de téléphonie mobile avoisine la couverture universelle.

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AD69: Malgré un certain progrès, les infrastructures de base demeurent un défi en Afrique

Les infrastructures constituent le soubassement du développement. Contingent indispensable d'un environnement favorable à l'investissement et au gagne-pain, une infrastructure adéquate favorise la croissance économique, réduit la pauvreté, et améliore la prestation des soins de santé et d'autres services (Banque Mondiale, 2014; Wantchekon, 2014).

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BP98: The uses of the Afrobarometer in policy planning, program design and evaluation

This discussion explores some specific ways in which Afrobarometer data can contribute to policy-making and implementation processes. Although it cannot and should not be the only factor that determines policy outcomes, even in a democracy, information on what the public wants has often been missing from these processes altogether, when it should be at their center.  Diamond and Morlino (2005) identify responsiveness – a government that does what the people want – as the “essential result” of democracy.

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BP92: What can the Afrobarometer tell us about service delivery in Africa?

While the delivery of services of such as security, education, water and sanitation and telecommunication are seen in most places around the world as essential responsibilities of the state, the typical African – especially in rural areas – is unlikely to enjoy many of these amenities.  Moreover, given the expense of regular, large scale household surveys, the typical policy-maker looking for evidence with which to guide the extension or provision of these services may be equally hard pressed.

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BP128: Basotho’s difficulties accessing household services from the Government

Some essential government services, ranging from piped water to electricity, are the cornerstone of proper living. The ease with which people access services affects their quality of life. Election campaigns usually revolve around promises to give the people easy access to services. People often vote a particular party into government primarily because people hope that the party is more poised than others to provide a set of desired services.

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Economic well-being of Sierra Leoneans, public service delivery and national government performance

<p>&nbsp;Findings on evaluations of the economy and national government from the Round 5 (2012) survey in Sierra Leone.</p><p><a href="/sites/default/files/media-briefing/sierra-leone/srl_r5_presentation1.pdf" target="_blank">Download the full document</a></p>

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AD36: Improving prospects for South Africa’s youth: Education, vocational training still key priorities

In 2015, the Republic of South Africa ratified its National Youth Policy 2015-2020 (NYP). One of the policy’s four primary objectives is “to strengthen the capacity of young people to enable them to take charge of their own well-being through building their assets and ultimately realising their potential to the fullest” (Presidency, 2014, p. 12). This is a crucial objective, given that about half of the country’s unemployed workers are youth ages 15-24 years (Statistics South Africa, 2015).

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WP154: The face of African infrastructure: Service availability and citizens’ demands

The need for infrastructure improvements is a top-tier economic, political, and social issue in nearly every African country. Although the academic and policy literature is extensive in terms of estimating the impact of infrastructure deficits on economic and social indicators, very few studies have examined citizen demands for infrastructure. In this paper, we draw upon survey data to move beyond top-line estimates of national infrastructure access rates toward a more nuanced understanding of service availability and citizen demands at the regional, national, and sub-national levels.

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PP21: The quality of public services: An intrinsic factor in Ghanaian evaluations of government performance

The provision of public goods and services is an important aspect of socioeconomic development. Access to basic services such as clean water and sanitation, health care, schooling, and transportation enhances citizens’ well-being. Access to roads and telecommunications systems lowers transaction costs, leading to improvements in trade and economic activities (Xu, 2013).

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Disponibilité, accessibilité et qualité des services publics au Benin

Afrobaromètre est une série comparative d'enquêtes d’opinions publiques, couvrant jusqu'à 35 pays africains pour le Round 5 (2011-2013). Il mesure l’atmosphère publique sur la démocratie et d’éventuelles solutions alternatives, des évaluations de la qualité de la gouvernance et la performance économique. En outre, l'enquête évalue le point de vue de l'électorat sur les critiques questions politiques dans les pays de l’étude.

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WP65: Are you being served? Popular satisfaction with health and education services in Africa

This article explores the determinants of public satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with health and education services in Africa. Among prospective explanations, we consider the users’ poverty, their general perceptions of service accessibility, and their specific experiences with service providers. We find that “user-friendliness” of services is essential, especially to poorer clients. But daily encounters – including with substandard teaching and the costs of clinic fees – tend to depress public approval, not only of services, but also of democracy.

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WP71: A vicious circle of corruption and mistrust in institutions in sub-Saharan Africa: A micro-level analysis

This paper evaluates the extent to which expressive voting can explain Malawi’s regional census. Specifically, are Malawians who hold regional identities more likely to be regional partisans than Malawians who identify differently? The paper does not seek to wholly reject or accept the identity hypothesis, but rather to plumb the boundaries of its explanatory power: How far can it go in explaining the census? Are there regions of the country that it explains better than others?

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WP73: The micro-dynamics of welfare state retrenchment and the implications for citizenship in Africa

In Africa, neoliberal reform has represented a major retrenchment in the public provision of health and education services. In terms of politics, this free or highly subsidized public provision of health and education had always been tightly linked to the expansion of citizenship at the end of colonial rule.

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WP103: Corruption and trust in political institutions in sub-Saharan Africa

This paper analyzes the impact of corruption on the extent of trust in political institutions using a rich collection of comparable data provided by the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 sub-Saharan African countries. More specifically, we set out to test the "efficient grease" hypothesis that corruption can strengthen citizens' trust since bribe paying and clientelism open the door to otherwise scarce and inaccessible services and subsidies, and that this increases institutional trust. Our findings reject this theoretical argument.

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WP155: On the primacy of weak public service provision in rural Africa: Malians redefine ‘state breakdown’ amidst 2012 political crisis

In 2012, Mali faced a dual state breakdown disrupting nearly 20 years of democratization – a coup and a secessionist insurgency. This paper provides the perspectives of rural Malians living on the border of state- and rebel-controlled territory. Our main finding is that villagers defined “the crisis” as one of unmet need for public services and infrastructure. State breakdown matters less where the state is not present in the first place. Rather than the state, villagers were largely reliant on local traditional authorities.

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PP5: Une politique gouvernementale décevante : les Africains privilégient la qualité à la quantité en matière de services sociaux

Dans 34 pays africains, les opinions populaires sur l’efficacité du gouvernement à fournir des services domestiques (eau et assainissement, électricité) sont défavorables et en déclin, celles sur les services publics (santé, éducation) sont un peu plus favorables, mais également en déclin, et de nombreux Africains constatent de graves lacunes dans la prestation de ces services. La lutte contre le VIH et le sida est la principale exception : les efforts des gouvernements sont bien notés et la tendance montre une amélioration.

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Services publics

La disponibilité des services publics et à quelle fréquence ils sont accédés. Les services publics comprennent l'eau courante, une clinique de santé, un service de téléphone cellulaire, et un système postal.

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