UNIQUEMENT DISPONIBLE EN ANGLAIS.
UNIQUEMENT DISPONIBLE EN ANGLAIS.
Liberia is one of five West African countries hit by the world’s worst outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. Between March 2014 and May 2015, the epidemic in Liberia produced 10,675 suspected, probable, and confirmed infections and killed 4,809 people, including about 200 health-care workers (Doctors Without Borders, 2016).
Le développement des pays passe par une combinaison à la fois des plans nationaux et ceux des partenaires au développement. Si à ce jour les résultats des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement (OMD) restent discutables, les Nations Unies ont déjà adopté les nouveaux Objectifs de Développement Durable (ODD), qui visent, entre autres, à éliminer la pauvreté, parvenir à la sécurité alimentaire, et garantir à tous une vie prospère et un accès équitable en eau, à une éducation de qualité, et à une énergie moins chère et fiable.
L'accès aux soins de santé figurait dans les plans nationaux et internationaux de développement même bien avant que la Déclaration d'Alma Ata en 1978 n’ait défini une stratégie en vue d'atteindre l'accès universel aux soins primaires (Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, 1978).
D'après les nouveaux résultats des enquêtes d'Afrobaromètre, presque la moitié des Africains n’arrivent pas à combler leurs besoins en soins de santé, et un sur sept doivent verser des dessous-de-table avant d'obtenir les soins dont ils ont besoin.
La majorité des Guinéens pensent qu’il y a une mauvaise gouvernance dans le secteur de la santé, notamment à cause de la corruption des agents de santé
Selon la plus récente enquête d’Afrobaromètre en Guinée, plus d’un guinéen sur deux (55%) pensent que le Gouvernement actuel répond très mal/plutôt mal aux préoccupations des citoyens dans le cadre de l’amélioration des services de santé de base.
Zimbabwe has experienced many economic and political problems in recent years. The unemployment rate is estimated to be close to 90% and the country officially abandoned its currency in 2009. Under such conditions all services including health care have deteriorated. Average life expectancy dropped from 65 in 1990 to 43 in 2005 while under five mortality has increased from 76 per 1000 in 1990 to 82 per 1000 in 2005. Immunisation, antenatal care and chronic disease treatment declined while HIV/AIDS and cholera plague the country.
While the delivery of services of such as security, education, water and sanitation and telecommunication are seen in most places around the world as essential responsibilities of the state, the typical African – especially in rural areas – is unlikely to enjoy many of these amenities. Moreover, given the expense of regular, large scale household surveys, the typical policy-maker looking for evidence with which to guide the extension or provision of these services may be equally hard pressed.
A wide policy disjuncture exists both inside and outside Zimbabwe’s coalition government regarding the best way to empower the country’s citizens. Empowerment is a popular war cry among most former colonies, especially those that were under a settler regime as was the case in many Southern African countries, including Zimbabwe. The crux of the problem is how best to more evenly redistribute national wealth and resources between the former colonising minority and the indigenous majority population. In Southern Africa, the former were invariably white and the latter predominantly black.
HIV/AIDS is now tied with crime as the public’s second most frequently mentioned priority problem facing the country. The proportions of South Africans who say they have lost a friend or family member to an AIDS-related illness has doubled over the past four years.
These are some of the important findings revealed in the Afrobarometer survey conducted in South Africa in October and November 2004.
Across 15 countries surveyed in Round 2 of the Afrobarometer, our data in dicate that large proportions of people (especially in East and Southern Africa) have either lost family or friends to AIDS, or suffer under the burdens of AIDS by caring for sick family members or orphans. Yet despite exposure to the pandemic, we find that ordinary Africans have not yet grasped its full collective social, economic or political significance. Poor people demote AIDS to a low priority problem behind more immediately pressing concerns like jobs or hunger.
In 2009, the government of Benin embarked on a series of policy initiatives to increase public access to health services, especially for pregnant women, children under age 5, and the poor.
While health coverage rates remained steady, attendance at health services increased sharply, and at first, public satisfaction with the government’s performance in improving basic health services increased as well. However, by 2014, public approval of the government’s efforts had dropped sharply. What explains this decrease in public satisfaction, despite the policy reforms?
The post-2015 sustainable development discourse has emphasized the need for a more inclusive and participatory policy framework projecting the voices of the people in policy-making and implementation processes. Some commentators have argued that while the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have achieved some poverty reduction, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) should be better designed to enhance the living standards of the people. Yet not much has been done to create the necessary space for citizens’ voices to be heard.
The provision of public goods and services is an important aspect of socioeconomic development. Access to basic services such as clean water and sanitation, health care, schooling, and transportation enhances citizens’ well-being. Access to roads and telecommunications systems lowers transaction costs, leading to improvements in trade and economic activities (Xu, 2013).
This article explores the determinants of public satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with health and education services in Africa. Among prospective explanations, we consider the users’ poverty, their general perceptions of service accessibility, and their specific experiences with service providers. We find that “user-friendliness” of services is essential, especially to poorer clients. But daily encounters – including with substandard teaching and the costs of clinic fees – tend to depress public approval, not only of services, but also of democracy.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the part of the world that is most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, surveys of attitudes to AIDS across African countries show that most people do not attach great importance to the issue. Given the devastating impact of HIV/AIDS, this appears paradoxical. This paper argues that the salience of AIDS is low in Africa because many people are too poor to consider the disease important. This means that AIDS is crowded out by other issues – such as poverty, hunger, and unemployment – that have more immediate consequences for people’s lives.