La liberté d’expression

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AD176: Malawians increasingly cautious about exercising right to ‘free’ political speech

Under the one-party reign of President Hastings Kamuzu Banda, Malawi was described as a country “where silence rules” (Carver, 1990) because of the regime’s effective machinery for squashing dissent. This era ended with a 1993 referendum endorsing a multiparty democracy and constitution enshrining freedom of expression and of association (Malawi Government, 1994). 

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BP69: Citizens of the world? Africans, media and telecommunications

Democracies are assumed to rely on an informed and active citizenry. Freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and access to a variety of independent media sources are therefore considered essential elements of democratic societies. The Afrobarometer has been asking respondents since 1999 how often they get news from various sources, including radio, television and newspapers. But in many parts of the world people increasingly gather news and communicate via mobile phones and the internet.

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BP60: Batswana support press freedom and critical speech

Botswana has been known for its tolerance of freedom of speech and independence of the media. Tswana traditional society was based on freedom of speech where individuals could state their views without fear. This freedom of speech, which was coincident with free press, was encapsulated in the maxim “Mmualebe o bua la gagwe” (every person has the right to his or her own opinion).  how do ordinary Batswana feel about freedom of speech and of the press?  Batswana overwhelmingly express support for media and individual freedoms.

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BP106: Freedom of expression in Kenya: Exploring public use of old and new media

Freedom of expression is a human right and bedrock for development. However, experience differs across the globe with some countries censoring what is communicated to the general public and totally gagging citizens. This experience is gradually being negated as the world embraces new interactive media through ICT. This channel relays information in real time and it is almost impossible to control by governments who are not keen on embracing public opinion in governance.

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BP7: Freedom of speech, media exposure, and the defense of a free press in Africa

Africans value freedom of speech.  In Afrobarometer surveys in a dozen African countries, people say that democracy requires that citizens are able to criticize the performance of governments.  It seems reasonable to suppose that the liberty of individuals to express themselves evolves together with the emergence of a free press.   This connection raises important questions.  Does exposure to a plural mass media – or to other, informal modes of communication – promote popular democratic values?  What happens to such values when governments control the media of mass communications?

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AD24: Can Tanzania’s news media maintain popular support for watchdog role?

In successive Afrobarometer survey rounds, more than seven of 10 Tanzanians have said they feel free to say what they think, placing Tanzania near the top among African countries in perceived freedom of speech. The Tanzanian news media environment, however, is only partly free, according to Freedom House assessments, and recent years have witnessed extensive government intervention in news media activity.

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Tanzanians support critical free press, commend its performance, but want less negative reporting

A majority of Tanzanians support a critical and independent news media, but that support has weakened as more citizens express a desire for less negative news reporting, according to the latest Afrobarometer survey.

Two-thirds of Tanzanians say the media should constantly investigate and report on government mistakes and corruption, and a majority say the media should report any views and ideas without government control. But on both issues, support is significantly lower in 2014 than it was in 2012.

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WP42: The power of propaganda: Public opinion in Zimbabwe, 2004

This report probes the public mood in Zimbabwe in mid-2004, documents changes in public opinion since 1999, and compares Zimbabwe to other African countries. The results are situated in the context of the country's current economic and political crises. On the economy, we find that Zimbabweans feel economically deprived and report more persistent hunger than in any other country surveyed. On the political front, Zimbabweans are losing faith in democracy and increasing numbers acquiesce to the idea of single-party rule.

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WP59: Popular reactions to state repression: Operation Murambatsvina in Zimbabwe

In May 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe launched Operation Murambatsvina (OM), a state-sponsored campaign to stifle independent economic and political activity in the country’s urban areas. This article employs a national probability sample survey to analyze the popular reactions of ordinary Zimbabweans to this landmark event. It shows that the application of state repression s쳮ds at some goals, fails at others, and has powerful unintended effects.

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La radio reste la source d’actualités privilégiée, même si les médias traditionnels accusent un recul

La radio reste la source d’actualités dominante pour la plupart des Africains ; plus de 60 % de la population de chaque pays, exception faite de l’Égypte, écoutent les informations à la radio, selon l’enquête de l’Afrobaromètre menée dans 34 pays. Il ressort de l’enquête que la télévision et Internet connaissent tous deux une forte croissante en tant que sources d’actualités, rognant sur la domination de la radio, mais que 77 % des Africains écoutent les informations à la radio au moins quelques fois par mois.

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L’Afrobaromètre identifie des corrélations entre la liberté d’expression et la bonne gouvernance

La liberté d’expression des citoyens est fortement corrélée à l’efficacité des gouvernements, selon les données recueillies lors d’entretiens réalisés en face à face avec plus de 51 000 Africains dans 34 pays au cours du Round 5 de l’Afrobaromètre (2011–2013). Il ressort de l’enquête que lorsque les citoyens sentent qu’ils sont libres de leurs propos, ils déclarent également que leurs dirigeants sont plus dignes de confiance et moins corrompus que leurs pairs.

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Les publics africains soutiennent les droits et les responsabilités d’une presse libre

La majorité des Africains soutiennent des média indépendantes qui enquêtent et publient sur les performances gouvernementales et la corruption, selon une nouvelle analyse des données d’Afrobaromètre.

Les sondages concernés, qui représentent plus que trois-quarts de la population du continent, montrent que 57% des Africains demandent une presse libre, même si certains pays et certaines régions tolèrent plus d’ingérence gouvernementale que d’autres. Les citoyens moins instruits sont moins enclins de soutenir des média indépendantes.

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PP3: L’alliance entre la liberté d’expression et la bonne gouvernance en Afrique

La liberté d’expression n’est pas seulement précieuse en tant qu’aboutissement démocratique. Elle est fortement corrélée à la perception populaire de l’efficacité des médias et de la qualité de gouvernance, selon les nouvelles données de l’Afrobaromètre, recueillies lors d’entretiens réalisés en face à face avec 51 605 personnes dans 34 pays au cours de la période 2011–2013.

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