L'égalité des sexes

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Kenyans see gains in gender equality, but support for women’s empowerment still uneven, Afrobarometer survey finds

A majority of Kenyans say the country has made progress toward gender equality, but below-average support among men and lagging political engagement among women point toward remaining challenges, according to new Afrobarometer findings released on International Women’s Day.

Popular perceptions that girls and women have a fair chance at education and jobs, that gender violence is never justifiable, and that women should be accorded a fair shot at being elected are in line with perceived progress toward gender equality, the new survey data show. 

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Celebrating International Women’s Day: Reflections on Citizens’ Perspectives on Gender and Gender Issues in Kenya.

The Institute for Development Studies (IDS), University of Nairobi and the Pan African research network Afrobarometer, will have a public sharing of Afrobarometer survey results on gender issues in Kenya. The issues for reflection will include: Land inheritance and ownership, women participation in governance and gender based violence, among others. The nation-wide survey is part of the Afrobarometer survey series conducted across 35 countries in Africa.

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AD87: Reaching for equality: Zimbabweans endorse gender equity in politics but say citizens treated unequally before the law

UNIQUEMENT DISPONIBLE EN ANGLAIS.

Equality is a principle enshrined in Zimbabwe’s Constitution and legal system, which seek to guarantee both gender equity and equal treatment for all – regardless of class, religion, or race – before the law. According to Section 3(1) of the Constitution, “recognition of the equality of all human beings” is one of the country’s founding principles.

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BP126: Are Malawian adults turning pink? Exploring public opinion on women’s political leadership

This briefing paper explores the opinions of Malawi an adults on women’s political leadership ability. Existing literature contends that people hold opinions in the form of “stereotypes” that have potentially negative implications for women candidates, especially when they are running for national office (Huddy and Terkildesen 1993, Braden 1996, Kahn 1996, Feehan 2006, Chilobwe 2011). Stereotypes reflect perceived rather than real traits of an individual (Huddy and Terkildesen 1993).

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BP131: Examining government and public officials’ accountability and responsiveness

This briefing paper assesses citizens’ perceptions of government and public officials’ accountability and responsiveness using the first Afrobarometer survey data collected in Sierra Leonean in 2012. This survey and analysis comes against a backdrop of a public outcry in response to poor financial management practices in key government agencies and departments as documented in the 2012 Auditor General’s Report.

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BP147: Gender equality and the participation of women in public office in Swaziland

Despite major efforts over the past two decades to create equal opportunities for women to participate in politics and to increase female representation in government leadership in sub-Saharan Africa, women's inclusion continues to be a major challenge.According to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals Report 2013,the proportion of seats held by women in single or lower houses of national parliaments in sub-Saharan Africa increased by just 8 percentage points between 2000 and 2013, from 13% to 21%.

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BP16: Is There a political gender gap in Uganda?

Do men and women in Uganda think differntly about the political transition underway in their country?

At first glance, the Round 3 Afrobaromter survey of a random sample of 2400 adult Ugandans in April/May 2005 seems to reveal substantial gender gaps in public opinion on key political and constitutional questions. This brief paper reports the extent of, and trends in, these gaps. It also explores, in preliminary fashion, whether differences in opinion between men and women are due to gender or some other social characteristic, such as education. 

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AD12: Basotho less supportive of women’s political leadership, opposed to traditional chieftain role

Basotho women still find it hard to attain leadership positions due to discriminatory cultural practices and laws, Afrobarometer’s most recent survey shows. Survey results also suggest that women are less active than men in community and political organising.

Support for women’s political leadership declined from 2012 to 2014, and even though two-thirds of women say that women should have the same chance as men of being elected to political office, a majority of women and men still support the law that allows only sons to succeed to chieftaincy in Lesotho.

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AD14: In Malawi, women lag in political participation; support for women’s leadership declines

Despite having been led by southern Africa’s first female president, Malawi has made little progress toward equal political participation by women, Afrobarometer’s most recent survey suggests. Women in Malawi remain less likely than men to engage in political activities, and public support for women’s leadership has declined.

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AD20: Zambians overwhelmingly disapprove of domestic violence and corporal punishment

An overwhelming majority of Zambians say they are opposed to physical violence as a way to discipline women and children, Afrobarometer’s most recent survey reveals. Disapproval of wife battering is so widespread in Zambia that there is little or no difference in views across genders, urban/rural locations, or education levels.

Opposition to corporal punishment of children, both at home and at school, is also the majority view, though less widespread than disapproval of physical discipline of wives.

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PP22: Gender equality in Burundi: Why does support not extend to women's right to inherit land?

With 27,834 km² of surface area and a population of 10.5 million, Burundi’s population density is seven times that of Tanzania and second only to Rwanda’s on the African mainland (World Bank, 2014). Its population grows at an annual rate of 2.4%, and more than 90% of the population lives primarily on agriculture.

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In Malawi, women lag in political participation; support for women’s leadership declines

Despite being led by a female president for almost two years, Malawian women are less likely to be involved in political discussions and show less interest in public affairs than their male counterparts, according to a 2014 Afrobarometer survey.

Women in Malawi are also less likely than men to attend a political rally or campaign meeting, to persuade others to vote for a candidate, and to work for a political candidate.

Survey results show a sharp decline in public support for women’s political leadership.

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WP58: The political gender gap in Africa: similar attitudes, different behaviors

Recent analysis by Ingelhart and Norris (2003) suggests that the observed gender gap between men and women in Western societies is shifting, from women being more conservative than men in ideology, electoral preference, and political attitudes (the “traditional gender gap”) to being more liberal (the “modern gender gap”). But the same analysis challenges whether this model of the links between gender and political preferences applies well in non-Western developing societies.

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WP153: Do men and women have different policy preferences, and if so, why?

Gender quotas to increase women’s representation are often motivated by the assumption that men and women have different policy preferences. In Africa – where gender quotas have been particularly widespread – we find that gender differences in preferences are quite small on average, but vary significantly across both policy domains and countries. We propose a theoretical framework for differentiating policy domains where preference divergence indicates increased gender parity from those where it signifies growing inequality.

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Les femmes Africaines moins actives en politique et la peur des violences de campagne

Le soutien des Africains pour l'égalité des femmes est de plus en plus répandu, mais la réalité de chaque jour pour de nombreuses femmes reste caractérisée par le fait qu’elles font l’objet de désavantage et de discrimination. Et tandis que la plupart des gouvernements africains obtiennent généralement de bonnes notes pour leur performance dans l'autonomisation des femmes, la lutte pour l'égalité des droits et des chances pour les femmes est loin d'être gagnée surtout pour les femmes en Afrique du Nord.

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PP8: Le Soutien pour l'égalité des femmes africaines prend de l’ampleur : L'éducation, l'emploi et la participation politique restent inégaux

L’enquête réalisée par l’Afrobaromètre auprès de plus de 50 000 personnes à travers 34 pays révèle un soutien très répandu en faveur de l’égalité des femmes tant chez les hommes que chez les femmes, de même qu’un assentiment généralisé à l’égard des capacités de leadership des femmes. Toutefois, une minorité significative de personnes manifestent leur désaccord, et le soutien en faveur des femmes assumant des rôles de leaders est bien plus faible en Afrique du Nord.

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